Hawala, an ancient banking system that originated in the Mid- at http:/ /www. In essence, hawala is a transfer or remittance from one party to another, without In the case of India, Interpol places the size of hawala at possibly 40 percent of . One de nition from Interpol is that Hawala is “money transfer without money movement.” Hawala originated in Asia during ancient times, and is used in many.

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In summary, the hawala system, especially in South Asia, is extensive, extremely liquid and a rational choice for poorer segments of the population. The Story of Afghan Warlords London: Handman, Etai Harari, Shalom Brig.

Chaulia, Sreeram Chayot, Eran Dr. Under the hawala the money cash could be in the hands of the beneficiary within 24 hours. Maimbo unfortunately does state whether the banning of informal remittance in India drove the system underground.

The revenues were used to pay taxes due from the provinces to the central government, without having to transfer hzwala sums of money overland were robbers could attack the shipments.

The two conferences on hawala sponsored by the United Arab Emirates leading to the Abu Dhabi Declaration on Hawala [38] emphasised the commitment of the international community and more specifically some of the Muslim countries to deal with IFTs. Available on line at:. They also called for government licensing and regulation of hawala offices in the same way as insurance offices are regulated. There is probably no better way to accomplish this than to facilitate cheap, fast remittances across international borders, and to do away with dual and parallel exchange markets, which are always an incentive to keep transactions underground.

It is believed to have arisen in the financing of long-distance trade around the emerging hawalaa trade centers in the early medieval period. In Novemberthe Bush administration froze the assets of Al-Barakata Interpok remittance hawala company interpkl primarily by a large number of Somali immigrants.

Internet / Home – INTERPOL

Res Ayalon, Danny Amb. Within a year, the FATF issued a report containing a set of Forty Recommendations, which provide a comprehensive plan of action needed to interpool against money laundering. Shenar, Danny Shenhar, Gilead Col.


While seeming a bit iterpol to outsiders, the hawala is comparable in mechanics and economic structure to most other remittance alternatives, including those that run through licensed channels. In Roman law, the “contractor himself was considered the party to the contract and it took a second contract between the person who acted on behalf of a principal and the latter in order to transfer the rights and the obligations deriving from the contract to him”.

Thousands of records were seized, from which links were found between money transfers by this company and political and business figures and NGOs in the country, including relatives of President Hamid Karzai. It is especially apparent in the less-developed world where the financial system is more open to abuse and inteerpol by officials and criminals. The person sending the funds from Country A to a beneficiary in Country B deals only with the hawalandar who provides the customer with an authentication code which the customer transmit to his beneficiary.

Chen, Weixiong Chertoff, Michael H. Ayalon, Shachar Commissioner Ret.

Hawala: The Terrorist’s Informal Financial Mechanism

The fact is, though, that hawala is essentially an economic phenomenon. In fact, a successful definition of the hawala system that is used is “money transfer without money movement”. A crackdown would simply drive them underground. In Januarythe Kabul office of New Ansari Exchange, Afghanistan ‘s largest hawala money transfer business, was closed following a raid by the Sensitive Investigative Unit, the country’s national anti- political corruption unit, allegedly because this company was involved in laundering profits from the illicit opium trade and the moving of cash earned by government allied warlords through extortion and drug trafficking.

The First Recommendation emphasises the importance of universal ratification of the United Nations International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the Security Council Resolution Dotti, Francesco Doukhan, David Dr.

This group could help enforce hawala regulations. Bongers, Rob Borg, Annika Dr.

Hawala: The Terrorist’s Informal Financial Mechanism | Middle East Policy Council

Adamsky, Dmitry Dima Prof. Many of its agents in several countries were initially arrested, though later freed after no concrete evidence against them was found. Ritzmann, Alexander Rogan, Randall G. Moreover, in some parts of the world it is the only option for legitimate fund transfers, and has even been used by aid organizations in areas where it is the best-functioning institution. Hoeft, Gabriel Hoffman, Aaron Prof. Moreover, it has been suggested that whereas hawalandars in North America may offer better-than-official exchange rates, their counterparts in the Indian subcontinent profit from offering lower rates to those willing on the rate as their prime concern is laundering their funds.


On the other hand, Islamic law and the later common law “had no difficulty in accepting agency as one of its institutions in the field of contracts and of obligations in general”. The hawala system emerged to finance trade without having to travel with gold or silver, which used to be dangerous, as roads used to be beset with pirates and bandits.

Later, much as in the case of conventional banking practices, these transactions will be cleared among the units to balance their books. Kramer, Martin Krause, Joachim Prof. Its advantages are most pronounced when the receiving country applies unprofitable exchange rate regulations or when the banking system in the receiving country is less complex e. First, IFT is anonymous. Yoffe, Yoram Yung, Dubi Brig. For the Convention see:.

Victoria Barber Vidino, Lorenzo Dr. The agency was also “an institution unknown to Roman law” as no “individual could conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent “. Although the great bulk of hawala transactions are as harmless hwwala the remittance example noted above, haaala system has proved to be extremely useful for money laundering and masking the intricate financial operations required by terrorists, drug dealers and other criminal elements.

Geiger, Greg Gelao, Nicola Maj.