Involved-side cervical rotation range of motion less than 60 degrees,. 3. . Hearn , A., Rivett, DA. (). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual. This paper discusses the likely biomechanical effects of both the accessory and physiological movement components of a unilateral cervical SNAG applied. 1 Manual Therapy () 7(2), doi: /math, available online at on Review article Cervical SNAGs: a biomechanical analysis A. Hearn,* D. A. Rivett w *SportsMed, .

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It is acknowledged that other spinal structures, such as certain neural tissues or surrounding musculature, may play a role in the mechanism of action of cervical SNAGs, but are not considered for the purposes of this review.

Cervical SNAGs: a biomechanical analysis.

Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: Cervical SNAGs were the first example of a group of techniques known as mobilizations with movement MWM which Mulligan developed to restore painfree unrestricted movement for most joints in the body Mulligan In addition to its slight upward convexity in the sagittal plane, the uncinate processes have given the cervical vertebral body a marked upward concavity in the frontal plane, thus providing a saddle shape that has two axes of motion perpendicular to each other and located on opposite sides of the joint Milne ; Penning Online Course Descriptions degree seeking: Case Report Article ID: The Vertebral Column, 2nd edn.

The spine rating is inclusive of leg symptoms except for gross motor weakness, bladder or bowel dysfunction, or sexual. With one thumb reinforced by the other placed on the articular pillar of the upper vertebra of the implicated functional-spinal unit FSUthe therapist applies a sustained passive accessory intervertebral movement PAIVM superoanteriorly along the facet plane.

There are several findings from these studies that are relevent to the present discussion.


Stuart John Horton Manual therapy Although the chosen technique could theoretically resolve these problems it is difficult to explain biomechanically why a technique which first distracts and then compresses cervocal ipsilateral zygapophyseal joint, and perhaps slightly distracts the ipsilateral aspect of the uncovertebral cleft, would be superior to a technique which distracts the articular surfaces with both accessory and physiological movement components.

Either mechanism could be a primary or secondary through tractioning of the zygapophyseal joint capsule source of pain and muscle spasm Saboe ; Mercer Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica Supp.

Shashwat Mishra What is biomechanics? The position and inclination of the helical axis, which passes obliquely upwards and backwards through the moving vertebral body Milne Fig. Nags, Snags, Manual Therapy. Allen Hooper More information. By clicking accept or continuing sags use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyAalysis of Serviceand Dataset License.

Biomechanics is the study of the consequences of application of external force on the spine Motion More information. You have 24 vertebrae in your spinal column.

The Effectiveness of Chiropractic Care A substantial number of systematic reviews of literature and meta-analyses. The helical axis of composite motion Milne suggests that for rotatory cervical movement the axis of motion lies close to the ipsilateral zygapophyseal joint.

Cervical SNAGs: a biomechanical analysis

Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, 2nd edn. The point of application for the glide can be analyss unilateral on the articular pillar or central on the spinous process. Lee and Evansusing a biomechanical model, also predicted relative intervertebral movements when a PA force of N was applied to the spinous process of L4. Mulligan B Mobilisations with movements.

Cervical SNAGs: a biomechanical analysis – PDF

The literature on cervical SNAGs is limited, being almost exclusively descriptive and based on clinical experience Mulligana, ; Exelby ; Rivett et al. However, it is possible that the unilateral application of a cervical SNAG will produce axial y-axislateral z-axis and sagittal x-axis rotations, as demonstrated during unilateral thoracic manipulation Gal et al.


This may somewhat explain the clinical finding with cervical SNAGs that the same superoanterior accessory joint movement is needed, whether the movement dysfunction involves rotation or lateral cervicall Mulligan In the lower cervical spine, disc fissuring may start biomechaniical the centre of the disc and radiate in all directions, eventually becoming confluent and forming sequestra Tondury ; Ecklin Over-pressure can also be added by the giomechanical to the physiological bomechanical.

Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp Mulligan Bb Spinal mobilisations with arm movements further mobilisations with movement. Worth D Movements of the head and neck. Program in Physical Therapy is to provide advanced post-professional education to practicing physical therapists in Texas. Manual Therapy 7 2the centre of motion Penning Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research This glide is maintained as the patient moves actively through the desired range of physiological movement and then whilst sustaining ibomechanical end-range position for a few seconds.

This patient More information. It is interesting to note, however, that Mulligan s second choice technique in this case would be to apply the accessory glide contralateral to the side of pain but still perform active movement ipsilateral to the painful side, in effect, compressing the FSU ipsilateral to the side of pain with both accessory and physiological movement components.

In particular, an examination oftheir potential biological basis in order to stimulate informed discussion seems overdue.